Can you explain the Zigbee (based on IEEE 802.15.4) protocol and give an example in the real world -IOT

Question 1: Can you explain the Zigbee (based on IEEE 802.15.4) protocol and give an example in the real world?

Research of the past years has led to numerous novel developments and approaches for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most previous work has focused on either mathematical analysis or theoretical algorithms with extensive simulation results. In this paper, in order to realistically understand the complexity of WSNs, a ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 platform has been designed and implemented. Based on an IEEE 802.15.4 radio and ZigBee protocol stack, the developed ITRI ZBnode is an autonomous wireless communication and computing platform aimed at fast prototyping and research in WSNs. The platform attempts to provide a low data rate, low power, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. Finally, examples of tree and mesh network formation are provided to demonstrate practicability of the developed ZBnode platform.

Question 2: Can you explain the ANSI C12 protocol and give an example in the real world?

ANSI C12.22 is the American National Standard for Protocol Specification for Interfacing to Data Communication Networks

ANSI C12.22/IEEE Std 1703 describe a protocol for transporting ANSI C12.19 table data over networks, for the purpose of interoperability among communications modules and meters. This standard uses AES encryption to enable strong, secure communications, including confidentiality and data integrity. The cipher mode used, a derivation of EAX mode called EAX' (EAX prime), is provably secure in the context of C12.22. However, this cipher mode cannot be used securely for non-standard short messages (messages less than the key length of 16 bytes).[1] Its security model is extensible to support new security mechanisms.

ANSI C12.22/IEEE Std 1703 define message services which are components of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for smart grids.

There is also RFC 6142 for transporting C12.22 data using TCP and UDP transport over IP networks.

The ANSI C12.22 / IEEE Std 1703 service and domains consist of ANSI C12.22 / IEEE Std 1703 Network Segments and ANSI C12.22 / IEEE Std 1703 Nodes that are managed by distributed trusted centers, network relays and gateways. As smart grid AMI networks evolve, ANSI C12.22 / IEEE 1703 domains may be created to service the utilities' Field Area Networks (FAN) and the Home/Premise Area Networks (HAN/PAN). Nodes that operate in these domains must be registered with unique application title names (ApTitles) that need to be registered (ECMX).

Question 3: Can you explain the Bluetooth Low Energy protocol and give an example in the real world?

What is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)?

- Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE / Bluetooth LE / Bluetooth Smart) - Translate: Bluetooth Low Energy - is a wireless technology network that consumes very little energy used to connect devices together.

- Bluetooth is generally suitable for processing, transmitting and exchanging large amounts of data (e.g. in audio, video). However, it will consume more power and be more expensive.

- BLE technology is suitable for applications that do not require the transfer of large amounts of data, so only a small amount of data information can be recovered. And thanks to that, the device can run on battery power for many years at a lower cost than Bluetooth because it does not require a constant connection.

- Bluetooth Low Energy was born with the hope of bringing optimal efficiency to users through IoT devices, because of that it has been widely applied in smart technology devices with diverse fields. . Such as:

The positioning accessory tracks the location of objects with high accuracy - Samsung SmartTag. This is a device that is attached to different items so that the owner can easily find it when needed

Question 4: Can you explain the DLNA/UPnP protocol and give an example in the real world?

What is DLNA UPnP?

DLNA is derived from UPnP specifically for the purpose of media interoperability. The main difference between the two is the scope that they cover.